Written By: Saeed al-Yousifi For the Yemen Observer
Article Date: Aug 8, 2012 - 3:19:10 PM
Marib-- Preliminary Remarks In the recent past during the British colonization, there were two Sultanates governing what is now called Hadramout.
They were al-Qu’aiti Sultanate and al-Kathiri Sultanate which had fallen in the hands of National Front fighters way before the independence day. Al-Qu’aiti Sultanate had fallen on September 17, 1967 while al-Kathiri Sultanate on October 2, 1967. So was the end of the Sultanates reigns in Hadramout after al-Qu’aiti Sultanate had lasted for about six centuries in power while al-Qu’aiti ruled since 1820. At this time, the Hadrami rule came to an end, despite the fact that al-Qu’aitis belonged to Yafea’ tribes and established their Sultanate just after the end of Al Kassadis Yafea reign .
Hadramout Entity Quite after the declaration of independence and the control of the Front on power as well as the declaration of the Republic of Yemen in the south, the rulers faced up with problem of divisions among the people and the borders between the emirates and sultanates of the south which exceeded the number of 20 emirates, sultanates and chiefdoms each of which was considered a complete state with flag, anthem, army and identity.
The South was re-divided into six provinces. Hadramout was named the fifth province, including most of what was under the both sultanates and this name continued with it until 1978 the name of Hadramout was given. the Yemeni government had tried after the1994 Civil War to divide Hadramout into two provinces but that was met with extensive opposition by the Hadrami community and its leaders at that time, prompting the government to cancel the idea of Hadramout and deal with on the basis of two provinces under the name of one of Hadramout the coast and Hadramout the valley.
Community: During the past centuries many people had left Hadramout to the countries of South Asia and East Africa, and in the last century migrations headed to the neighboring Gulf states mostly to Saudi Arabia. Migrants worked there and some of them have become citizens in those countries.
They also worked on shaping the Saudi economy and have reached higher ranks of economy, but they are still strongly attached to their homeland. The region of Hadramout is replete with many of the religious authorities which are world centers of Sufism. They are most visited by students from different regions of Yemen and the Arab World. Hadramout has many religious corners in different regions experiencing social stability.
Hadramout is the first of a lot of areas of Yemen to get rid of feuds and tribal conflicts which have contributed in creating a peaceful and suitable environment for civil activities represented in agriculture and trade. The people of Hadramout excelled in doing businesses, but after the control of the National Front to govern and the pursuit of the Socialist principle in the economy and the implementation mechanism of nationalization, all that had driven a lot of traders to the north and some of them continued to the Gulf States to join their predecessors there.
This is what the traders suffered and subjected the religious scholars were also crushed down in Hadramout to during that period for ideological reasons of the new rulers, and this led to the atrophy of the Hadrami presence.
Moreover, the representation of out-populated Hadramout in the Front was less than expected, but the people of Hadramout were more rational during the conflict which took place in the South at the time of the National Front and then the Socialist.
Hadramout has the largest oil production which began in the early 90s, and since then, the oil ministry’s wallet has been in the hands of Hadrami figures except for short periods of time. However, the oil production is still increasing significantly because Hadramout enjoys a fertile area of safe environment that welcomes investments.
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